the scientific and industrial revolutions intersected with farming practices in the 19th century

For 3500 years, farmers, let certain fields lay fallow. By the late 19th century that practice was abandoned, The number of farmers decreased significantly and the size of farms increased. Soon agricultural soils lacked fertility. Chemical fertilizers like those made from phosphate replaced the organic and natural farming methods.  

Pictured left, Kentucky farmer and author, Wendell Berry, author of The Unsettling  of America. The industrialization of agriculture, Berry believes destroyed the important relationships between food and culture.


Rudolph Steiner

The father of the return to organic farming at the beginning of the 20th century. 


Sir Albert Howard

Howard studied local farming techniques mid-twentieth century in India. He wrote  An Agricultural Testament, he concluded that the Indian culture had much to teach the industrialized west.